Acomplia No Rx Pharmacy, By Ian Munro, The Age
He was a spurned lover who hired a helicopter to trail his former partner. Another bought so much surveillance equipment - high-powered cameras, vehicle-tracking devices and microphones - to stalk his ex-wife that he finally went into business as a private detective.
For 42 years a woman harassed a doctor who had treated her kindly. A former husband traced his wife interstate, through several moves of address, kicked in her doors, smashed windows, and stole her dog and underwear from the clothesline before he ended up behind bars. Then there was the man who arranged for shots to be fired at his girlfriend's house so he could come by to help. He wanted to be her hero, Acomplia No Rx Pharmacy.
This is the world of stalking. What would you do if your former partner posted explicit pictures of you on a website and, claiming to be you, invited strangers to drop by your workplace for a liaison. Several did.
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Other cases are simply chilling: you return home and find nothing missing, 40mg Acomplia No Rx Pharmacy, but something not quite right, furniture or photographs shifted from their usual place. Acomplia No Rx Pharmacy, Just enough disturbance so you know someone has been there and your place is not your own.
Melbourne, sporting capital and most liveable city has a new claim to fame: world pioneer in treating those people - usually men - who stalk and threaten those they know, have known or think they would like to know.
Launching Britain's first National Stalking Clinic last week, Home Secretary Theresa May paid tribute to the work of the Victorian Institute of Forensic Mental Health (Forensicare) in shaping her country's response to stalking. The NSC's website says it has been developed with the co-operation of the ''internationally renowned Problem Behaviours Program run by Forensicare in Melbourne, which is the leader in the field''.
Stalking is very common, although extreme cases are rare, says Dr Rachel MacKenzie, a senior clinical psychologist in the Problem Behaviours Program. It is, in fact, an extension of normal behaviour, Acomplia No Rx Pharmacy. Telephoning someone to ask them out, 200mg Acomplia No Rx Pharmacy, calling a former partner to try to revive a relationship: who hasn't done, or thought of doing, that. Such behaviour becomes extreme when it persists despite the victim making it clear that the attention is unwanted.
Under Victorian law this kind of attention becomes stalking when it turns into ''a course of conduct''. Repeated telephone calls, physical intrusions, email intercepts, abusing, threatening, computer hacking, following, loitering near or maintaining surveillance of someone - the only limit to the scope of behaviour that can become stalking is the perpetrator's imagination. Acomplia No Rx Pharmacy, ''We have one [offender] who broke into a woman's business website and was contacting her clients as if he were her … you can do major damage to someone's life without there being any physical violence,'' says MacKenzie.
Melbourne's expertise in assessing and treating stalking has been acquired over a couple of decades. Over the past five years the Problem Behaviours Program has accepted about 230 referrals a year, of which about a quarter relate to stalking, 1000mg Acomplia No Rx Pharmacy.
Melbourne's ties to British stalking offenders lie in a special kind of UK affliction - the stalking of the royal family.
Former clinical director of Forensicare Paul Mullen and forensic psychiatrist Michele Pathe, who is now based in Brisbane, were part of a consortium that won a Home Office tender to improve the management of threats to the royals.
They travelled to Britain and descended into a bomb-proof bunker near Buckingham Palace that housed the banks of filing cabinets and boxes containing threats to the extended royal family, Acomplia No Rx Pharmacy.
None of the information and threats had been collated, and not much was known of the stalkers as a group. ''[The police] could not even tell us what proportion of the Queen's stalkers were male and female, and whether those who stalked the younger members of the royal family were younger or older,'' Mullen says.
''There was great information there. It just had never been put in a form researchers could use to complete a study. Acomplia No Rx Pharmacy, They wanted us to find a more effective way of managing the threats … which ones were dangerous and which ones were not.''
Mullen was surprised by the results they found. At any time there might be 2000 stalkers targeting the royals. About three-quarters of them were found to be seriously mentally ill and out of touch with mental health services. Everyday stalkers they had already studied had low rates of mental illness. 30mg Acomplia No Rx Pharmacy, ''We had not expected more than 5 per cent of the royals study to be mentally ill. [Everyday stalkers] are not your average bloke in the street,'' says Mullen, Acomplia No Rx Pharmacy. ''They are vulnerable, difficult, inadequate, but not mentally ill.''
That work culminated in the creation in 2006 of the Fixated Threat Assessment Centre, which assesses threats to public figures, as distinct to the new stalking clinic, which will deal with everyday stalkers.
Stalking is not a new phenomenon. In 1866 Louisa May Alcott wrote a fictionalised account of it in A Long Fatal Love Chase, shortly before she wrote Little Women.
Mullen and Pathe, however, noticed the increasing incidence of stalking in the 1990s. Acomplia No Rx Pharmacy, ''When a behaviour starts to appear more frequently it means there is change in society and culture,'' says Mullen.
One thing that contributed to the increase was the changing role of women, their greater economic independence and their unwillingness to remain in unrewarding relationships, Acomplia No Rx Pharmacy uk. The more women asserted their independence, the more it became apparent some men could not cope with that.
''No one else was studying it. We started seeing stalking victims and then stalkers, who we found to be an interesting bunch of people.''
While stalkers and their methods vary widely - technological change such as the widespread adoption of the internet, email and social media such as Facebook are steadily opening up new possibilities - staff at Forensicare have found a broad typology of stalking.
''There's The Rejected,'' says MacKenzie, ''the ones who have had a relationship, and they can flip between wanting to reconcile with their former partner and wanting revenge, Acomplia No Rx Pharmacy. There's the Intimacy Seekers, who are trying to develop a relationship that they believe they already have with the victim.
''They stalk celebrities as well. For example, David Letterman had a stalker who believed she was his wife. It's not about sex, it's about a higher order love and sometimes that can be a relationship with a family or a mother figure.''
Letterman aside, other celebrities known to have been stalked include actors Uma Thurman and Gwyneth Paltrow, 50mg Acomplia No Rx Pharmacy, ABBA's Agnetha Faltskog, swimmer Ian Thorpe and singer Judith Durham. Acomplia No Rx Pharmacy, There are also The Resentful, who target someone they see as having failed them. Their targets include professionals such as lawyers, doctors or plastic surgeons and mental health practitioners. They also include people angry with organisations.
And there are the Incompetent Suitors, who may not understand that what they are doing is unwanted. ''It may be they can't pick up the social cues,'' says MacKenzie. ''They can be so narcissistic that they can't comprehend someone would not want to go out with them, and our society teaches people that persistence wins out, Acomplia No Rx Pharmacy. We see it in movies all the time … he wins out in the end.'' Unlike malicious stalkers they may not realise their behaviour is causing harm.
Finally, there are The Predators. ''In regards to what we see, they are usually engaging in the practice for sexual gratification. Sometimes it's a sadistic pleasure. Acomplia No Rx Pharmacy, This group includes voyeurs who keep going back to the same house,'' says MacKenzie. ''They are also a group who tend to do things to scare the victim, Acomplia No Rx Pharmacy overseas, letting them know someone is around but they don't know who … they are the smallest group of stalkers.''
In September, MacKenzie and Dr Troy McEwan, who is conducting a long-term trial of a tool developed by Forensicare, the Stalking Risk Profile, as part of the Problem Behaviours Program, travelled to Britain to train psychologists in its use.
''It's designed for stalkers who are not psychotic,'' says McEwan. ''There are a significant minority where the stalking is directly tied to a significant mental illness. There can be a delusional belief that drives the stalking, such as they are married to somebody they're not married to. A lot of people who stalk celebrities have that kind of delusional thinking, but they form a minority, Acomplia No Rx Pharmacy.
''The vast majority of stalkers do not have mental illness. Usually stalkers have skill deficits. They're not good at regulating their emotional responses, Acomplia No Rx Pharmacy australia, or solving problems in a rational way, or they're not skilled in ways that let people negotiate in relationships. Some are certainly [narcissistic]. Acomplia No Rx Pharmacy, More commonly you see a limited narcissism - in [the stalking] situation they feel very entitled, correct in doing it.''
There is an old joke about how many psychiatrists are needed to change a light globe. The answer is one, but the globe must want to change. So it is with stalkers.
McEwan says the most damaging stalker she has seen has never been violent. He has trouble understanding social cues. He is self-absorbed, socially awkward and occasionally delusional, Acomplia No Rx Pharmacy. He has stalked dozens of people over the past 15 years. He stalks women out of a sexually inappropriate attempt to get them to engage with him. He stalks men out of anger or resentment. He stalks professional sportspeople because he doesn't like their team. Acomplia No Rx Pharmacy, He stalked a young woman with whom he thought he was in a relationship. He does not respond to treatment. He does not think he has a problem. Everything is someone else's fault. Only jail stops him, 100mg Acomplia No Rx Pharmacy.
Yet much stalking peters out within a few days, Acomplia No Rx Pharmacy. The benchmark that indicates an episode will endure is two weeks: reach that point and the stalking may persist for years. Sometimes a stalker can be persuaded to stop when they are convinced of the damage they are causing. Less empathetic personalities need to be shown it is in their interest to change.
''To motivate a stalker for treatment is to show them how the behaviour is damaging them,'' says MacKenzie. Acomplia No Rx Pharmacy, ''Stalking is an incredibly punishing and expensive behaviour. Just think of what it costs to make
90 phone calls a day, how much time and energy you are investing. It's getting them to understand it's to their benefit to think about things differently, and to let go this relationship.
''For those who don't have the social skills, it's about getting them able to read the signals, the social cues others are giving. And it's about emotional regulation: giving them the skills to be able to calm the initial knee-jerk reaction and think about it in a different way. They are going to get caught eventually, and the ramifications of having ''stalker'' next to your name are immense.''
For the victim, stalking can be life changing, Acomplia No Rx Pharmacy. In the most extreme cases victims move interstate, 500mg Acomplia No Rx Pharmacy, severing their former ties.
One young woman, previously interviewed by The Age, was still being pursued by a man she had married out of pity, five years after she left him. The marriage had ended after about a year. She left despite his threats to shoot her. Acomplia No Rx Pharmacy, When she fled interstate he arranged to sit near her on the plane. She moved often and he hired private detectives to track her, and they kept on finding her. She moved into a second-floor flat so he would find it harder to break in. He climbed a tree and broke in anyway.
''You can have your house burgled and it can leave you feeling upset and unsettled, but when you are stalked you are stalked every minute of the day. I was removed from a family wedding because they thought he would turn up,'' she recalled.
Educational Resources for Domestic Abuse
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